As the trend of online shopping is getting valued, every traditional business is shifted on the internet or planning to secure the presence within a couple of days. When the businesses develop their web applications or software, they need to secure their confidential and clients’ data in order to maintain the trust-level. They need network security experts in order to maintain their reputation in the market. So, the job ratio is getting increased but it is necessary to get the basic knowledge for getting selected in any well-reputed organization. In this article, you will learn the most frequently asked cyber security interview questions and answers for newbies as well as experienced candidates.
Cyber security is the process of protection of hardware, software and data from the hackers. The primary purpose of implementing these cyber security techniques is to protect against different cyberattacks such as changing, accessing or destroying sensitive data.
Following are the main elements of cyber security:
Cryptography is the technique which is used to protect the confidential information from third parties called adversaries. It allows both sender and receiver of any message to read its details.
As the name indicates, IDS (Intrusion Detection System) detects the intrusions and an administrator prevent the intrusion carefully. Whereas in the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System), the system finds the intrusion and prevent it for better protection.
CIA (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability) is a common model that is used to develop a security policy. It consists of the following concepts:
In simple words, the firewall is a network security device which is mainly designed to monitor incoming and outgoing traffic and blocks data based on the security rules. Firewalls are considered the best option to protect the network from worms, malware, viruses, remote access and content filtering.
Traceroute is the network diagnostic tool which is used to track the real path of any data packet on an IP address from its source to destination. It reports the all IP addresses of routers and records the time taken for each hop. Traceroute is mostly used to check out the connection breaks to identify the point of failure.
Go to command prompt (cmd), write “tracert” and enter any domain name after a single space as you can view in the picture given below:
|Usage||Detect the intrusions||Used for the network|
|Monitoring||It monitors suspicious system activities and traffic of any specific device.||It monitors the traffic of all devices on the network|
|Performance||Must be installed on every host||It can monitor multiple hosts at a time|
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a technology used to create encrypted connections between web servers and web browsers. It is now compulsory for every website to be ranked on the first page of google and commonly used to protect online transactions, user’s data and digital payments.
It is the name of unauthorized transmission of data from a network (within the organization) to an external network or destination. Data leakage can occur via email, optical media, USB keys or laptops.
The brute force attack is based on trial-and-error to guess login information, encryption keys, or PIN. In this case, hackers make all the possible ways and try one by one to guess the credentials. Brute force attacks are automated and use a password dictionary that contains millions of words that can be used as a password. So, you can try to minimize the brute force risk by adopting the following ways:
Port scanning is the name of identification of the open ports and services available on any particular host. So, attackers use this technique to find out information for malicious purposes.
There are seven layers of OSI Model:
VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a network connection method that is used for creating a secure and encrypted connection. VPN protects you from the snooping, censorship and interference. Virtual Private Networks secure the public internet connection with the help of encryption techniques and provide shielding to your online activity from cybercriminals and even your own Internet Service Provider.
Black hat hackers are those people who have good knowledge of breaching the network security and they are able to generate malware for personal financial gain or malicious activities. They are clever and break into a network to modify or destroy data and make it unavailable for authorized users.
White hat hackers are also known as security specialists who are specialized in penetration testing and help the organization to protect their confidential and secure information from attackers.
It is the combination of both white and black hat hacking techniques in which the grey hat hackers sometimes violate ethical standards but they don’t have any malicious intent.
There are different ways to reset the BIOS password but few of them are given below:
MITM (Man In The Middle) is a type of attack in which the attacker intercepts the communication between two networks or persons. MITM is worked on the primary intent to access confidential information.
ARP is a protocol that works as an interface between the OSI network and OSI link layer and used to find out the MAC address associated with IPv4 address.
A botnet is the number of all internet-connected devices like laptops, servers, IoT, mobile devices and PCs that are controlled or infected by malware.
TLS is a secure channel between two clients, whereas SSL helps to track the person we are communicating with because it verifies the sender’s identity.
Cross-Site Request Forgery
2FA stands for two-factor authentication and it is a security process that is used to identify the person who is accessing an online account. The user will get access after giving evidence to the authentication device.
Asymmetric encryption uses a different key for encryption and decryption, whereas symmetric requires the same key for both encryption and decryption.
Web Application Firewall (WAF) is used to protect the application by filtering and monitoring all incoming and outgoing traffic between the application and internet.
Hacking is a technique used to find out weaknesses in the private network or computer to exploit its weaknesses and gain access. In simple words, it is the name of using password cracking techniques to gain access to the system.
Hackers are those people who find and exploit the weakness in any network or computing device to gain access. They are experienced programmers with a great knowledge of computer security.
It is a tool used to analyze data packets sent over a network using specialized software and hardware equipment. Sniffing can be used for:
Newly registered domains are easily infected with malicious software, so the DNS monitoring tools are used to identify malware.
Salting is a process in which passwords length is extended using special characters. In order to use it more efficiently, you need to understand the entire mechanism of salting. It is an efficient way to safeguard your passwords because it also prevents attackers from testing known words across the system. For example, (“QxLUF1bgIAdeQX”) is added to each password for the protection of passwords.
Secure Socket Shell (also known as Secure Shell) is a utility suite which is used by the system administrators to get a secure way to access the data on a network.
SSL is not an all-in-one security solution because it does not provide security once the data is transferred to the server. So, it is a proactive approach to use server-side encryption and hashing to protect against any data breach.
Vulnerabilities refer to any weak point in the applications or software code that can be exploited by an attacker. It is commonly found in SaaS (Software as a Service) applications.
The three-way handshake is the process to make a connection between localhost and sever in the network. This process requires the client and server to exchange the synchronization and acknowledgement packets before the actual communication of data.
Residual risk is a threat that balances the risk exposure after eliminating threats, so we can deal with the risk by choosing the following ways:
It is the name of unauthorized data transfer from a computer system. This transmission may be carried out by anyone having physical access to computing devices.
It is a method used by hackers to access data in an unauthorized way. Exploit is incorporated into malware.
Penetration testing is the name of checking exploitable vulnerabilities on the target. It is used to augment the web application firewall in web security.
When you are preparing cyber security interview questions and answers, then be prepared about the commonly used cyber-attacks. Following are the popular types of cyber-attacks:
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a communication protocol that is used in gaming or video streaming and facilitates communication devices, including routers, to send packets.
Cipher algorithm is highly recommended to protect email, credit card information and confidential data.
Data encryption is a technique that is used to secure the data by converting it into a code. So, the only authorized users can access this code or converted form of data. It is important for network security because your data can be breached at any stage in the network if it is not encrypted. In the cyber security interview questions and answers, your most questions should be on the encryption and decryption techniques and how you can secure the network.
Diffie-Helman is a protocol that is used whenever the key is exchanged between two parties and RSA is an encryption algorithm that takes the keys (public and private) to do the encryption and decryption.
RDP is developed by Microsoft and provides GUI (graphical user interface) to connect two devices over a network. In order to get successful communication, the user will use RDP client software and other devices must run RDP server software. RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) is dedicatedly designed for remote management and to access virtual applications, computers or terminal servers.
Forward secrecy is a security measure which is used to confirm the integrity of the unique session key in event that long term key is compromised.
IV (Initial Vector) is an arbitrary number which is used to ensure that identical text encrypted to different cipher texts. IV program is used by the encryption program only once per session.
|Parameter||Stream Cipher||Block Cipher|
|Working||Operates on small plaintext||Works on large data blocks|
|Code requirements||Less code required||More code required|
|Usage of keys||Only once||Reuse of key is possible|
|Application||Secure Socket layer||File encryption and database|
|Usage||Used to implement hardware||Used to implement software|
Following are the examples of symmetric encryption algorithm:
ECB stands for Electronic Codebook and CBC stands for Cipher Block Chaining.
It is a type of malware that is used to steal data about the company or person. Spyware can damage the computer system of the companies or organizations.
Yes, it is a mechanism that is used to assign the user account to an unknown user.
SRM (Security Reference Monitor) is a Microsoft Windows system that is used to implement security in the windows. It determines whether access to a resource is allowed or not. MSFT Access Token is used for the verification of all user actions.
It is malicious software that is executed on the system without users’ consent and consumes computing resources such as CPU time and memory. In some special cases, this malicious software makes changes in other computer programs and insert its own code to harmthe computer system. Different computer viruses may be used to:
It is a technology used to identify the publisher of Authenticode sign software. With the help of Authenticode, every user can verify that software is genuine or contains any malicious program.
As the name indicates, CryptoAPI is the collection of encryption APIs that allows the developers to create a project on a protected and secure network.
Following are the simple steps to secure your web server:
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA) is a graphical and command-line interface used to find missing security updates and misconfigurations.
It is a type of hacking in which attackers understand the weak points and try to improve the overall security of a network. Ethical hackers get the help of different tools and fix vulnerabilities of computer or network.
The term social engineering is used to convince people to reveal the confidential information and it has three types: Human-based, mobile-based and computer-based.
IP address stands for Internet Protocol address and used to uniquely identify any computer or other devices such as printers, storage disks on a computer network.
MAC address stands for Media Access Control address that is used to uniquely identify network interfaces for proper communication at the physical layer.
The worm is a type of malware which replicates from one computer to another.
|How they infect?||The virus inserts malicious code into a particular program or file||Worm is attached in Instant messages or email copies|
|Dependency||It needs a host program to work||There is no need for any host to function correctly|
|Linked with||Virus is linked with .com, .xls, .exe, .doc, and others||The worm is linked with any file on a network|
|Affecting speed||It is slower than worm||It is faster as compared to virus|
Following tools are used for packet sniffing:
Yes, it is a tool used for the identification, prevention or removal of viruses presented in the computing devices. Anti-virus sensor systems perform system checks and increase the security of the computer on a regular basis.
Following are the types of sniffing attacks:
It is a type of attack in which a malicious actor aims to render a computer, server or any network resource to its intended users. In other words, it is a process of disrupting the normal traffic of a targeted server by overwhelming the target.
TCP session hijacking is the name of misusing a valid compute session. The most common method of hijacking is IP spoofing and attackers use IP packets to insert a command between two nodes of the network.
Following are the common methods of session hijacking:
Hacking tools are programming scripts and computer programs that are useful for finding and exploiting the weaknesses in computer systems, server, networks or web applications. A lot of tools are available in the market both free and paid solutions for commercial use.
Following are the most common encryption tools:
Backdoor term is used when a security mechanism is bypassed to access a system by adopting malware technique.
No, it is not recommended to send your login credential through email because there are solid chances of email attacks.
This networking rule is defined on the basis of network traffic, in which 80% of all network traffic should remain local while 20% of traffic should be routed towards a permanent VPN.
WEP cracking is a method that is used for a security breach in wireless networks. Mainly, it is categorized into two types: Active cracking and Passive cracking.
Following tools are commonly used in WEP cracking:
It is the name of internal inspection of operating systems and software applications for security flaws.
The audit can be done through line by line code inspection.
Phishing is a technique used to obtain the confidential information such as username, password or credit card information of users.
Nano-scale encryption is a research area that provides robust security to computers and prevents them from attacks.
It is a type of software testing that ensures the applications and systems are free from any vulnerabilities, risks or threats that may cause a big loss.
Security scanning is the name of identification of network and system weaknesses to provide solutions for reducing these risks. It can be done for both manual as well as automated scanning.
Here is a list of useful hacking tools:
Following are the main disadvantages of testing:
It is a risk which can steal confidential data and harm computer systems or networks as well as organization.
It is known as potential cause of any incident that may result in physical damage to your network or compute systems.
Following are the common examples of non-physical threat:
It is a type of malware that is used to gain access to any computer using social engineering techniques to execute the trojan virus on the system.
SQL injection is an attack that poisons malicious SQL statements to the database by taking advantage of poorly designed web applications.
Following are the security vulnerabilities as per OWASP:
An access token is a credential that is used by a system to verify whether the API should be granted to any particular object or not.
Address Resolution Protocol poisoning is a type of attack in which the IP address is converted to the physical address on a network device. The host will send an ARP broadcast and all receivers respond back with their physical addresses. In other words, ARP poisoning is the name of sending fake addresses to the switch so that it can associate the fake addresses with the IP address of a computer connected to the network and hijack the traffic.
Following are the common types of non-physical threats:
The sequence of a TCP connection (also known as a 3-way handshake) is SYN SYN-ACK ACK.
Nmap is a network scanning tools that use the IP packets and used to identify all the devices connected to a network and to deliver information on the operating systems they are running.
It is a network analysis tools which is used for sniffing packets of network traffic.
Mainly, there are two types of cyber-attacks: web-based and system-based attacks.
Common web-based attacks are SQL injection, Brute Force attack, Phishing, DNS Spoofing, DoS and Dictionary attacks.
Following are the examples of system-based attacks:
Mainly, there are four types of cyber attackers: Cybercriminals, Hacktivists, Insider threats, and State-sponsored attackers.